Over fifty years ago, Vatican II's Nostra Aetate 4 drew from Romans 11 to challenge the way Paul's voice has been used to negatively discuss Jews and Judaism. The church called for Catholics to conceptualize Jews as ""brothers"" in ""an everlasting covenant,"" and many other Christian organizations have expressed similar sentiments in the years since. Nevertheless, the portrayal of Jews as ""branches broken off,"" ""hardened,"" ""without faith,"" ""disobedient,"" and ""enemies of God"" whom Christians have ""replaced"" as ""true Israel,"" are among the many ways that readers encounter Paul's views of Jews and Judaism in today's translations and interpretations of this chapter, and throughout the letter as well. In the chapters in this volume, Nanos shows why these translations and interpretive decisions, among others, do not likely represent what Paul wrote or meant. Each essay offers challenges to the received view of Paul from the research hypothesis that Paul and the Christ-followers to whom he wrote were still practicing Judaism (a Jewish way of life) within subgroups of the Jewish synagogue communities of Rome, and that they understood Paul to observe Torah and promote Judaism for their communities. ""Over the years, Nanos has exposed many unexamined and problematic assumptions readers often bring to their reading of Paul. In this collection of essays, we are given a chance to trace how Nanos further developed his thoughts on Paul's letter to the Romans since the publication of The Mystery of Romans (1996). Consider this, then, Nanos's sequel to that award-winning monograph. Unlike most sequels, this one did not let me down."" --Tat-siong Benny Liew, College of the Holy Cross ""The 'Paul within Judaism' approach is dedicated to reading Paul as a Jew, writing to congregations still affiliated with Diaspora synagogues, and rooting out Christian supersessionist assumptions wherever they appear in scholarship on the apostle. Meticulous exegetical and historical precision have been as characteristic of Nanos's work as has the daring of his guiding hypotheses. These close readings of key aspects of Romans stand as testaments to his achievement and challenges to the research ahead."" --Neil Elliott, author of The Arrogance of Nations: Reading Romans in the Shadow of Empire (2008) ""These essays will remind readers why Mark Nanos is rightly regarded as one of the chief architects of the Paul within Judaism perspective. Paradigm shifts in biblical studies often involve fresh, challenging, and credible exegetical insights, and one will find a plethora of them here. Even when I'm not fully convinced by a particular rereading, I always come away feeling like my hermeneutical horizons have been profitably expanded by what Mark has to say. I look forward to discussing these essays with students for years to come "" --Mark D. Given, Missouri State University ""These essays, the fruit of close attention to the text of Romans, are indicative of Nanos' unique contribution to the interpretation of Romans. Significantly, both Paul and the Christ-following groups in Rome are viewed as part of Jewish community life. This challenges traditional approaches, and standard translations, and offers a fresh analysis of the historical context. Nanos opens up exciting avenues to further explore one of the most influential documents of Christian tradition in relation to Judaism."" --William S. Campbell, University of Wales Mark D. Nanos (PhD, University of St. Andrews, Scotland) is a Lecturer at the University of Kansas; his books include The Mystery of Romans (1996), The Irony of Galatians (2002), and as co-editor, Paul within Judaism (2015).