Description: One of the most significant features of the Fourth Gospel is its unique version of the crucifixion of Jesus (19:12-42). A full understanding of the central section of this scene, the depiction of Jesus' death and the details immediately surrounding (19:31-37), depends on the interpretation of the verse that recounts the piercing of his side and the ﬂow of blood and water (19:34). Yet, there has never been a clear consensus as to the meaning of this verse. This difficulty is not insurmountable, as the solution becomes apparent when one lends an attentive ear to the voice of the narrator. The event described in verse 34 is explicitly declared by the narrator in verse 37 to be the fulfillment of a ""Scripture passage"" that says, ""They shall look at him whom they have pierced."" It is, therefore, to that Scripture, Zechariah 12:10, that the author directs his audience for the meaning of this occurrence, and it is then from the literary context of the Zechariah passage that we can come to understand better this Gospel's account of the death of Jesus. Endorsements: ""Readers will appreciate the clarity, coherence, and conciseness with which Carnazzo presents his new interpretation of the climactic scene of seeing blood and water flowing from the side of the crucified Jesus. His narrative-critical approach, that takes seriously the scriptural background, opens the way for a deeper understanding of these key Johannine symbols."" --John Paul Heil, The Catholic University of America ""Among the many interpretative enigmas of the Fourth Gospel that continue to resist clarification is the statement in John 19:34 that blood and water flowed from the pierced side of the crucified Jesus. Carnazzo's concise study provides an excellent overview of scholarly discussion, from the Patristic era to contemporary scholarship . . . This rich study will guide all interested in a vexed Johannine question."" --Francis J. Moloney, Australian Catholic University About the Contributor(s): Sebastian A. Carnazzo received his MA in theology from the Notre Dame Graduate School of Christendom College in Alexandria, VA, and his PhD in biblical studies from the Catholic University of America in Washington, DC. He is a full-time lecturer in Sacred Scripture and biblical languages at Our Lady of Guadalupe Seminary in Denton, NE, and an adjunct lecturer in Sacred Scripture for the Notre Dame Graduate School of Christendom College.