The present volume focusses on a culture of co-existence in pluralistic societies in the Middle East and in India. The topic is approached from various different angles. Pro Oriente might not be able to contribute to immediate peace-making, which has to be a political task, but may contribute substantially to peace-keeping, to support a peaceful co-existence by developing ideas, prospects, and chances for peace. Reflecting on achievements, developing perspectives and visions for the future, not only in theory but also in practice, giving political impulses, and lobbying for a peaceful living together is the very task of Pro Oriente. Contributions come from Archbishops Paul Matar, Mor Theophilose Kuriakose, Joseph Powathil and Paul Nabil El-Sayah, Bishop Mar Antoine Audo SJ, Frans Bouwen MAfr, Philip Nelpuraparambil, Sidney H. Griffith, Herman Theule, Berge Traboulsi, Baby Varghese and Dietmar W. Winkler. Forewords are given by Cardinal-Patriarch Louis Raphael I. Sako, Cardinal Kurt Koch, Cardinal Christoph Sch nborn and Pro Oriente President Alfons M. Kloss. In a special section, the post-synodical Exhortation on the Middle East Synod "Ecclesia in Medio Oriente" by Pope Benedict XVI is published. The present book is dedicated to Metropolitan Mar Joseph Powathil, who has contributed substantially to the unofficial Pro Oriente dialogue within the Churches of Syriac tradition from its beginnings, on the occasion of his 90th birthday.