Fulgentius, bishop of Ruspe (c.467-532), is considered the greatest North African theologian after the time of St. Augustine. When Fulgentius was born, North Africa had been under the rule of Germanic Vandals for several decades. His family was repeatedly victimised by Vandal persecutions, and Fulgentius himself suffered persecution and exile. While in exile, he continued his pastoral labours and became the theological spokesman of the displaced. Though he was not an original thinker, he propagated the Augustian heritage and defended it against its adversaries, notably the Arians and Pelagians (or semi-Pelagians).