Thomas Aquinas is one of the giants of medieval philosophy, a thinker who had--and who still has--a profound influence on Western thought. Aquinas was a controversial figure in his time who was often engaged in fierce theological debates. He was the foremost classical proponent of natural theology, and the father of the Thomistic school of philosophy and theology. This Very Short Introduction will look at Aquinas in a historical context, and explore the Church and culture into which Aquinas was born. It will consider Aquinas as philosopher and theologian, and will look at the relationship between philosophy and religion in the thirteenth century. Fergus Kerr, in this engaging and informative introduction, makes the Summa Theologiae, Aquinas's greatest single work, accessible to new readers. He also sheds valuable light on the importance of Thomas Aquinas in modern times, showing why Aquinas matters now, illustrating the significant role that the writings of Aquinas play in contemporary debate.