This volume presents a project of empirical research on issues of theology, sexuality, and reproductive health and rights. It was carried out by researchers from two theological institutions in Brazil and Colombia in close contact with the grassroots in various civil-society organizations. Numerous studies at twenty-six Latin American institutions on the relation between theology and HIV/AIDS prepared the way for this project. It promotes and applies methodologies for Latin American popular education and participatory action research (PAR). While the project was finalized long before the COVID-19 pandemic hit Latin America and the world, the pandemic gave fresh evidence of the relevance of the project. The present volume is the English translation of the initial Portuguese and Spanish reports about the project, enriched with a new preface. The editors are delighted that this translation will help spread the vital insights from this research to a wider and global readership.