Pope Paul VI's notion of "integral human development," which was endorsed by his successors including Pope Francis, broke with the modern project of purely economic and technological development, resulting in an original understanding of development. Like a conventional notion of development, this theoretical construct favors economic growth, technological innovation, and the implementation of social programs. However, development is not just a socioeconomic and political issue, let alone a technical one; it raises, fundamentally, theological questions and points to important ethical challenges. Hence, integral human development is a vocation at which all personal, social, and political activity must be directed. As such, it is not a social but an anthropological program. Far from being a secular development theory, the notion of "integral human development" emphasizes the religious goal of reconciling humanity and God through the creation of a human family over and above material social and economic issues. Sustained by global principle and shaped by different cultural views, this book brings forth the uniqueness of this approach to development, examines its contribution to human welfare, and anticipates the resistances it may face.