Iran, Israel, and the Jews have a relationship that is in the news all the time. But it cannot be understood just in modern terms. Its roots are 2,500 years old. This volume surveys that history through case studies and broad overviews--from the first intensive contacts under Cyrus the Great, through Persian influence on Judaism evident in the Dead Sea Scrolls and the Babylonian Talmud, into the Middle Ages and the flourishing of Judeo-Persian literature and culture, and finally into modern times, when the political, social, and cultural ties are multifaceted and profound. Written by experts in both Iranian and Jewish studies, these essays convey the richness and complexity of a long and tumultuous relationship between two ancient and great civilizations, which continues to shape the world today. Aaron Koller is Associate Professor of Near Eastern and Jewish Studies at Yeshiva University. He is the author of The Semantic Field of Cutting Tools in Biblical Hebrew (2013), Esther in Ancient Jewish Thought (2014), and Unbinding Isaac (forthcoming). Daniel Tsadik is Associate Professor of Sepharadic and Iranian Studies at the Bernard Revel Graduate School of Jewish Studies at Yeshiva University. He is the author of Between Foreigners and Shi'is (2007), and Jews of Iran and Rabbinic Literature (forthcoming).