Tricia Gates Brown employs the methodology of socio-scientific biblical criticism to investigate the pneumatology of John and 1 John. She argues that the meaning of spirit in John and 1 John is best understood using the anthropological model of brokerage. The model of patronage and its relevance to the socio-cultural world of John's gospel is also discussed.
Spirit in the Writings of John examines the development in pneumatology between John and 1 John and analyzes what this suggests about the socio-cultural context of the Johannine community. There is a discussion of the meaning of the term paracletos in literature antedating John, and the dominant view that the word was a formal forensic term is challenged.