The essays in "Physics and Cosmology" "Scientific Perspectives on the Problem of Natural Evil" resulted from the seventh international research conference co-sponsored by the Vatican Observatory Foundation and the Center for Theology and the Natural Sciences. It is the first in a new series on the problem of natural evil on reconciling suffering caused by natural processes with God's goodness.The editors have divided this volume into four sections. The first includes history of the issue and a critical analysis of how the history has often been understood, followed by two chapters that provide typologies: one of types of suffering, the other of the various shapes of defenses. The second section comprises chapters that address the problem of suffering head-on, with resources from science, theology, and philosophy. The third section contains essays that address the issue by offering reformulations of typical understandings of the relation between God and the world. Finally, essays in the fourth section claim, in one way or another, that the question of the volume needs to be reframed."