The emergence of monotheism in the Old Testament is closely related to the theodicy question. It is based on doubts about God's power, kindness, and wisdom that haunted the Israelites in exile in Babylon. Deutero-Isaiah answers in the form of a communal theodicy by confessing YHWH as the only God. Through his universal work in creation and history, the effectiveness of the prophetic word, his saving intervention through Cyrus and his personal nearness, YHWH proves his uniqueness. In connection with monotheism, the theodicy motif shapes the collection and editing of the historical and prophetic books. The author draws parallels to the individual theodicy in the books of Job and Psalms, as well as to the universal theodicy in the Prehistory.