Many restorationist-oriented associations like the Advent Christian Church often embrace two conflicting principles. First, they understand the Bible's inspiration and authority in a way that minimizes the importance and value of church tradition. Second, they give high value to individual autonomy both in biblical interpretation and in church governance. Adventism Confronts Modernity describes what can happen when these principles conflict and make it difficult to resolve theological conflict. This work begins by exploring the nineteenth-century historical and theological roots of early Adventism with special attention to William Miller and the theological impact of the Great Disappointment, the failed prediction of the early Adventists that Jesus Christ would return visibly in 1843 or 1844. Subsequent chapters explore the Fundamentalist-Modernist controversies of the early twentieth century and focus on the impact of those events on the two colleges that trained Advent Christian clergy--Aurora College (now Aurora University) and New England School of Theology (later Berkshire Christian College). After discussing theological reform efforts within the Protestant mainline and fundamentalist coalitions, this book describes the conflicting views regarding the Bible's inspiration that emerged in the early twentieth century and their impact on the Advent Christian Church during the 1950s and 1960s. It concludes that further reflection is needed on both the doctrine of Holy Scripture and how restorationist movements balance Christian theology with individual and congregational autonomy. ""Prepare yourselves for an intellectual feast In his well-researched, reliable, and winsome account, Mayer provides his readers with a rare glimpse into a fascinating new world: a world that may be filled with lots of unfamiliar faces and even some interesting new places, but that is also populated by lots of surprisingly familiar issues. By allowing his readers to view these old issues through new lenses, he helps us all to see the challenges and possibilities more clearly."" --Garth M. Rosell, Senior Research Professor of Church History, Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary ""This fine book offers a fascinating window into the Protestant battle for the Bible through tracing the Advent Christian Church's theological journey. Mayer's overview of the modernist/fundamentalist controversy and post-WWII Evangelicalism's influence upon the Advent tradition provides a unique window for understanding how views of Scripture's inspiration shape the church. A great introduction to the trajectory of twentieth-century Protestant theological diversity."" --S. Donald Fortson, III, DMin, PhD, Professor of Church History and Practical Theology, Director, DMin Program, Reformed Theological Seminary Robert J. Mayer is Senior Librarian and Assistant Professor of Theological Bibliography at Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary, where he has served since 1997. He is based at the seminary's Charlotte, North Carolina campus.