Oswald Bayer is one of the most important contemporary interpreters of Martin Luther and confessional Lutheran theologians. As a Luther scholar, Bayer has identified the precise reformational turning point in Luther's life and theology, which is also the central point for a truly Lutheran theology: the promise of a forgiving and justifying God preached in Jesus Christ. As a Lutheran theologian, Bayer stresses that this promise of God is the ultimate subject matter of all theology, and that all other theological topics have the justifying promise of God as their basis and boundary. Hanging by a Promise investigates how Bayer addresses Luther's topic of the hidden God--a God of wrath who accomplishes everything--from the standpoint of the justifying promise of God. Luther's doctrine of the hidden God has been taken up, discussed, and interpreted by many in the modern Protestant theological tradition. Yet, Bayer addresses it in a way in which others before him have not. Going beyond interpretation and evaluation, Bayer actually makes use of Luther's hidden God in his own theology. For Bayer, the hidden God is the counterpoint to God's gracious promise given in the preached Christ, a counterpoint that brings serious tension into the very heart of theology. ""Oswald Bayer has perceptively articulated major themes in the Lutheran tradition in the context of twentieth and twenty-first century theology, philosophy, and societal theories as perhaps no other figure of his generation. Miller's sharply-focused, finely-tuned analysis of how Bayer applies Luther's doctrine of justification within the framework of his concept of the 'Hidden God' provides readers with fresh perspectives and insightful analysis that further the application of Reformation theology to current pastoral and theological issues."" --Robert Kolb, Professor of Systematic Theology emeritus, Concordia Seminary, Saint Louis, MO ""This circumspect and erudite book is a surprise: Joshua Miller has not only well understood my theological concerns but also advanced them in new contexts and opened new insights into my work."" --Oswald Bayer, Professor emeritus of Systematic Theology, University of Tubingen, Tubingen, Germany ""Josh Miller's book is a wonderful introduction to the theology of preeminent theologian, Oswald Bayer, and the themes of suffering, God's hiddenness, and the agency of God's word. This thoughtful volume is a trustworthy guide for contemporary students of Martin Luther and Lutheran theology. Miller is on his way to becoming one of the most knowledgeable new American scholars of Lutheran theology."" --Amy Marga, Associate Professor of Systematic Theology, Luther Seminary, St. Paul, MN ""The books of Oswald Bayer have brought fresh air and sunlight to Luther studies, particularly in difficult areas like the topic of God's hiddenness. Joshua Miller has done careful work in the texts of Bayer and shows the considerable fruit of that labor in Hanging by a Promise."" --Mark D. Tranvik, Professor of Religion, Augsburg College, Minneapolis, MN Joshua C. Miller is an Instructor in Religion at Augsburg College in Minneapolis, Minnesota. He received his doctorate from Luther Seminary in Saint Paul, Minnesota.