For many years, biblical scholars had been convinced that the Middle Ages was marked by a so-called pre-critical understanding of the Bible, with only a handful of isolated exceptions like Andrew of St. Victor popping up as precursors of the historical-critical method. Here, however, Henri de Lubac draws on extensive documentation that demonstrates that even among the Victorines the traditional exegesis involving an interplay between the literal and spiritual senses of Scripture is a constant throughout medieval exegesis. The one exception a radically important one, de Lubac readily admits was Joachim of Flora, whose doctrine is considered in the final chapter of this volume. This third volume of Fr. de Lubacs Medieval Exegesis cover volume two, part one of his French volume and includes both the original Latin notes and an English version of the sources.