This text considers the consequences of the natural sciences (physics, biology, neurosciences) for our view of the world. It argues that higher, more complex levels of reality, such as religion and morality, are to be viewed as natural phenomena and have their own concepts and explanations, even though all elements of reality are constituted by the same kinds of matter (ontological naturalism). It takes a radical naturalist position on religion and science. Religious traditions remain important as bodies of wisdom and vision, and the naturalist view of the world does not exclude a sense of wonder and awe, since at the limits of science questions about the existence of natural reality persist. The author offers a survey and classification of discussions on science and religion, and a substantial introduction to contemporary studies on the history of science in its relation to religion.